The figure below shows a region PQRS of a uniform magnetic field directed downwards into the plane of the paper.
Electrons, all having the same speed, enter the region of the magnetic field.
a) On the figure, show the path of the electrons as they pass through the magnetic field emerging from side QR.
b) A uniform electric field is also applied in the region PQRS so that the electrons now pass undeflected through this region. On the figure, mark with an arrow labelled E, the direction of the electric field.
c) The undeflected electrons in (b) each have charge -e, mass m and speed v. State and explain the effect if any, on the particles entering the region PQRS of the same magnetic and electric fields in (b) if the particles each have
i) charge -e, mass m and speed 2v.
ii) charge +e, mass m and speed v.
a) Since the electrons are moving to the right, it is the same as a current flowing to the left. By using Flemming’s left hand rule, the magnetic force on the electrons is downwards.
According to Flemming’s left hand rule, the magnetic force will always be perpendicular to the velocity of the electrons. This means that it provides a centripetal force. Hence, the electrons will move in a circular path as shown.
Once the electrons exit the magnetic field, they will move in a straight path since there is no resultant force acting on the electrons. We ignore the effects of the weight because the acceleration of due to the weight is too small to cause any significant change in the velocity of the electrons.
b) In order for the electrons to pass through undeflected, the resultant force on the electrons must be zero. Since the magnetic force on the electrons is downwards, the electric force acting on the electrons must be of the same magnitude and acting upwards.
In order for the electric force to be acting upwards, electric field lines must be directed downwards. (Since electrons are negatively-charged, they will experience an electric force in the opposite direction to the electric field lines.)
c) When an electron is moving with a speed of v, it passes straight through without any deflection. The magnetic force and electric forces on the electrons are given by the following formulae:
FE = qE
Since the downwards magnetic force is now greater than the upwards electric force, the resultant force is downwards and the particle will curve downwards as it passes through the region.
ii) When a particle of the opposite charge (+e) and mass (m) and same speed (2v) moves through the field, the directions of the magnetic force and electric forces are now reversed.
The electric force acts downwards and the magnetic force acts upwards on the particle.
However, both forces are still of the same magnitude and the resultant force is still zero. Hence, the particle will still pass through the region undeflected.